Choosing the Right Web App Rendering Pattern for Your Project

Web development can be perplexing, given the hundreds of variables to consider and the constant stream of new trends to keep up with. For example, choosing how and where content should be rendered is a key decision when designing a new web application. Should it occur directly on the client, the web server, or somewhere else? Should it be rendered entirely, partially, or progressively?

Over time, new ideas have transformed web app creation, setting new standards like the shift from multi-page applications to single-page applications, a significant milestone in web development history.

The right rendering pattern can result in faster builds, better loading performance, and lower processing costs. On the other hand, a wrong decision could ruin a great business idea. As a result, it is critical to ensure that each groundbreaking idea is developed with the proper rendering pattern.

In this article, we'll cover several rendering strategies, including server-side rendering and static site generation, among others. Each approach comes with its benefits and limitations, and the ultimate choice depends on your top priorities.

What are Rendering Patterns?

A rendering pattern refers to how a particular framework generates HTML to serve the user. There are various methods to achieve this, each with its own significance. Over the years, the process of building websites and applications has undergone significant changes, leading to the emergence of new rendering patterns. The abundance of rendering patterns can be attributed to the diverse requirements and available technologies, which offer developers the flexibility to create various solutions. Factors such as SEO, optimization, and the type of application being built play a crucial role in determining the suitable rendering pattern. For instance, building an internal dashboard differs significantly from a user-facing application or a simple content page.

However, the multitude of rendering patterns poses a challenge of choosing the right one for a particular solution. Selecting an appropriate rendering pattern depends on several considerations.

  • First, performance becomes a crucial aspect, and developers must decide where they are willing to invest more time – whether it's in building the application or ensuring fast delivery.
  • The requirements for Search Engine Optimization (SEO) also play a role. Some solutions demand top-notch SEO, while others may not require the same level of discoverability, especially if they are internal tools.
  • Another essential aspect is scalability, as developers must consider the future growth of the application. With these considerations in mind, one can make an informed decision about the suitable rendering pattern for their project.

Types of Rendering Patterns

Now, let's explore some of the available rendering patterns.

Static Site Rendering

The oldest and most fundamental one is the static site, which comprises a set of HTML files. Initially, the web started as a collection of static files with CSS, JavaScript, and images. A static site hosted in a service like S3 would suffice for simple purposes, particularly for landing pages. Some tools like Hugo, Jekyll, and even GitHub Pages offer improvements in terms of developer experience (DX) for building static sites. However, it's important to note that while static sites are simple and quick to set up, they may not be the most scalable solution in the long run.

Multi-Page Application Pattern

At one point, web developers adopted the Multi-Page Application (MPA) pattern to introduce dynamism into static websites. The primary idea behind MPA was to allow servers to generate HTML output based on external variables, such as user sessions, database queries, or other aspects of the application. This approach gained popularity in the early days of the web, and many frameworks like Laravel, Rails, and Django were built to facilitate server-side rendering.

However, MPA had a significant limitation: every time a user changed routes or accessed a new page, the entire page would refresh, leading to a full page reload. Consequently, the state of the application was not maintained because sending all the page state back to the server would be impractical and inefficient.

Single-Page Application Pattern

To overcome the limitations of MPA, developers came up with the Single Page Application (SPA) pattern. SPA has become increasingly popular and is widely used by web developers today. JavaScript frameworks like Backbone, Ember, Angular, and React played a key role in the rise of SPA.

In SPA, the server generates an empty HTML file with a bunch of JavaScript code. When a user visits the application, the client downloads this JavaScript code, which then takes charge of rendering the application and managing its entire state. Instead of reloading the entire page, only the relevant components are updated, providing a smoother and more interactive user experience.

Advantages of SPA
  • Improved performance: SPA reduces the need for full-page reloads, resulting in faster user interactions.
  • Enhanced user experience: The application feels more responsive and interactive due to the smooth updates without page reloads.
  • Reduced server load: As the client handles rendering and state management, the server is relieved of generating HTML for every request, reducing its workload.

Challenges with SPA
  • Initial loading time: SPA requires users to download the entire JavaScript code upfront, which can lead to slower initial loading times, especially for larger applications.
  • SEO challenges: Since SPA relies heavily on JavaScript for content rendering, search engine crawlers may face difficulties indexing the page, affecting search engine rankings.
  • Reduced accessibility: Some users, especially those with slow internet connections or disabled JavaScript, may experience limited access to SPA-based applications.

SSR - Server-Side Rendering

Server-Side Rendering (SSR) is a pattern that offers a fast initial page load by generating the initial HTML on the server and shipping it to the client along with some basic state. Popular frameworks like Next utilize SSR in their development approach.

Advantages of SSR

The primary advantage of SSR is the quick initial render, which allows users to see the application content faster. Additionally, the server handles the rendering process, enabling search engines to index the content for better SEO.

Challenges with SSR

Despite the fast initial render, SSR still requires waiting for JavaScript to load and execute on the client side, causing a noticeable gap between the initial render and when the application becomes fully usable.

SSG - Static Site Generation

Static Site Generation (SSG) is a different approach that involves building the application with React or similar frameworks and then compiling the entire site into static HTML, JavaScript, and CSS files during build time. Gatsby is a popular framework that excels in SSG.

Advantages of SSG

SSG offers faster load times as it ships pre-rendered static HTML files to the client. This improves overall performance and simplifies hosting, as the site can be served directly from static file storage, like AWS S3 or CloudFront.

Challenges with SSG

The major challenge with SSG is the build times, especially for large and content-heavy pages. Waiting for the site to rebuild every time a change is made can become cumbersome and slow down development workflow.

ISR - Incremental Static Regeneration

To address SSG's limitations, the Incremental Static Regeneration (ISR) concept was introduced. ISR allows developers to build the entire site, deploy it, and then regenerate or rebuild specific pieces of the site based on certain circumstances, such as invalidating a cache. Vercel supports ISR out of the box for Next SSR and SSG.

Partial Hydration and the Islands Architecture

Partial Hydration

Partial Hydration is an approach that aims to solve the issue of the application being unusable during the gap between initial loading and JavaScript execution. By setting specific parts of the application to be hydrated, developers can lazy load JavaScript to handle those components, making the application functional even during the initial load.

Islands Architecture

The Islands architecture, popularized by Astro, takes the concept of Partial Hydration a step further. It isolates specific pieces of the application that require JavaScript, allowing different frameworks to be used for different parts of the application. This approach prevents JavaScript from taking over the entire application and ensures that only certain well-defined components rely on JavaScript for interactivity.

Resumability Rendering Pattern

Resumability stands out as a promising approach proposed by Qwik. This pattern aims to eliminate the need for hydration by rendering the entire site on the server. Instead of restarting the state on the client, the client resumes the state from where the server left off. The concept can be likened to a virtual machine, where one can pause the machine, save it externally, and continue from the same point on another computer.

One significant advantage of the Resumability pattern is its potential to minimize data transmitted over the network, resulting in faster loading times. Since the rendering process can resume from the server's state, data does not need to be fetched again from the beginning. For example, if the server has already fetched and rendered data up to a certain point, the client can pick up from there and continue without redundant data retrieval.

Choosing the Right Rendering Pattern

Selecting the most appropriate rendering pattern depends on several factors. Firstly, developers should consider their familiarity and expertise with the framework that offers the specific pattern. Additionally, the project's requirements, including SEO considerations and performance needs, play a crucial role in making an informed decision.


Rendering patterns play a vital role in web development, and understanding their strengths and weaknesses is essential for creating successful applications. With different rendering approaches available, developers can choose from SSR for faster initial renders and SEO benefits, SSG for overall performance improvements, ISR for a balance between SSR and SSG, and Resumability for avoiding hydration and faster loading times. Making the right choice involves evaluating the unique requirements of each project and the capabilities of the selected framework. Ultimately, developers are encouraged to explore these patterns, choose the one that suits their needs best, and build remarkable web applications.

The Expertise of Solwey Consulting

At Solwey Consulting, we specialize in custom software development services, offering top-notch solutions to help businesses like yours achieve their growth objectives. With a deep understanding of technology, our team of experts excels in identifying and using the most effective tools for your needs, making us one of the top custom software development companies in Austin, TX.

Whether you need ecommerce development services or custom software consulting, our custom-tailored software solutions are designed to address your unique requirements. We are dedicated to providing you with the guidance and support you need to succeed in today's competitive marketplace.

If you have any questions about our services or are interested in learning more about how we can assist your business, we invite you to reach out to us. At Solwey Consulting, we are committed to helping you thrive in the digital landscape.

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